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forcing prisoners to confess through beatings and torture
|“||A witch, like a wolf, doesn't torture her sacrifice. Only priests and inquisitors do that.||”|
Torture devices are one of the most notorious methods employed by witch-hunters, usually to obtain confessions but, in most of the cases, even lead to death.
Within continental and Roman Law witchcraft was crimen exceptum: a crime so foul that all normal legal procedures were superseded. Because the Devil was not going to "confess", it was necessary to gain a confession from the human involved. To do so, witches were captured, usually following more or less founded accusations, and tortured into confessing. Where the physical torture were seen as illegal or immoral, as pointed out by Reverend Cotton Mather when he accused his father of using methods comparable to a medieval inquisitor, were employed underhanded methods of psychological torture to gain a confession.
Over the centuries, mankind has has took on many faults. One of the most dreadful fault of men is the proclamation of themselves as prosecutor, judge and executioner of other human beings according to beliefs and social norms. Especially in times of crisis, like the Great Schism of 1054 and the Crusades and other religious wars designed to convert the 'infidels' that took place in the Middle Ages and the Modern Age, led the civilized human being to find scapegoats for the sins and plagues that could not be explained rationally. From ancient time to modern day, several forms of torure has been carried for several reasons for torture can includepunishment, revenge, political re-education, deterrence, interrogation or coercion of the victim or a third party, or simply the sadistic gratification of those carrying out or observing the torture.
Restriction and torture methods and devices
Torture methods and devices are the most terrible and frightening human invention ever created, designed to destroy the spirit and the body of other human beings. Hereinafter is given a list of methods and devices shown in the TV series.
Cutting could be used for the torture and execution of a living person, or applied as an act of humiliation after death. The executions generally consisted of cuts to the arms, legs, and chest leading to amputation of limbs, followed by decapitation or a stab to the heart. If the crime was less serious or the executioner merciful, the first cut would be to the throat causing death; subsequent cuts served solely to dismember the corpse. In the show this kind of torture was used on the slave witch Tituba by Increase Mather.
This was a form of punishment that was mainly reserved for supposed witches. One straps a subject to a seat and lowers it all the way into water, then briefly allows the subject to come up for air before being lowered back down. While desperately inhaling, the subject is asked to confess. If there is no confession, it means more dunking. If there is a confession, it could very well mean an immediate conviction and death by dunking. Ordeal by water began with the witch-hunts of the 16th and 17th centuries. King James VI of Scotland claimed in his Daemonologie that water was so pure an element that it repelled the guilty. Madame Mab has suffered this treatment by the hand of Increase Mather, with the aim to obtain the names of other witches.
The heretic's fork was a torture device, loosely consisting of a length of metal with two opposed bi-pronged "forks" as well as an attached belt or strap. The device was placed between the breast bone and throat just under the chin and secured with a leather strap around the neck, while the victim was hung from the ceiling or otherwise suspended in a way so that they could not lie down. Increase Mather used it on Tituba in The House of Pain.
A metal sarcophagus of human dimensions with metal spikes on the inside that penetrate the flesh of a prisoner when the lid is closed. Smaller, but equally painful, it also a iron mask with spikes, which is affixed to the face of the prisoner and then hit with a hammer so that the spikes penetrate the skull. This method is usually fatal. One of the previous incarnations of the Countess Von Marburg was killed by this torture device by Roman legionnaires.
Pear of Anguish
It may be named for a fruit, but there is most certainly nothing sweet about it. This device is placed in a subject’s orifice, then slowly cranked open wider and wider until the subject confesses. A death from blood loss was not uncommon. During the trial of John Alden, Cotton Mather showed to the crowd gathered in the meeting hall a pear of anguish, accusing his father of having extorted the confession from Emily, Charlotte and Suzanne by means of this instrument.
This simple yet effective method of torture comes from the shores of France. One simply presses an increasing load of weight on a subject who refuses to plead innocent or guilty until the load becomes too much to bear. It is important to monitor the weight carefully, however, for slip ups resulting in a flat subject are known to happen. This method was extremely dangerous and often passed from being a torture to an actual execution, as happened to Giles Corey.
Sleep deprivation was used as a means of interrogation by witch hunters during the Great Witch Caze, which has resulted in court trials over whether or not the technique is a form of torture. Under one interrogation technique, a subject might be kept awake for several days and when finally allowed to fall asleep, suddenly awakened and questioned. Increase Mather used it to interrogate the hapless acolytes of Mercy Lewis: Charlotte, Emily, Suzanne and Charity, taking the girls tied to chairs and screaming against them sermons on eternal damnation.
Main Article: Witch's Bridle
The Witch's Bridle is a metal muzzle affixed to the face of the prisoners to prevent these to bite themselves or others during interrogation. The Witch's Bridle is mostly restraint device, but the psychological torture and humiliation of wearing it can affect the psyche of the prisoner, who feels trapped. Mercy Lewis has undergone the treatment of the muzzle.
Capital Executions for witches
Since witchcraft was held responsible for plagues and famines, practitioners of magical arts, especially maleficium practitioners, were therefore punishable by law. Condemned to a shameful death, their remains were thrown into mass graves, sprayed in the wind or left feeding the stray dogs, depriving them of a funeral ceremony..
Death by Burning
Deliberately causing death through the effects of combustion, or effects of exposure to extreme heat, has a long history as a form of capital punishment. Many societies have employed it as an execution method for such crimes as treason, rebellious actions by slaves, heresy, witchcraft and demonstrated sexual deviancy, such as incest or homosexuality. The best known type of executions of death by burning is when the condemned is bound to a large wooden stake. This is usually called Burning at the stake (or, in some cases, auto-da-fé, especially during the Spanish Inquisition's trials). But other forms of death resulting from exposure to extreme heat are known, not only by exposure to flames or burning materials. For example, pouring substances, such as molten metal, onto a person (or down their throat or into their ears) are attested, as well as enclosing persons within, or attaching them to, metal contraptions subsequently heated. Immersion in a heated liquid as a form of execution is reviewed in death by boiling. Both the death by burning than the hot water torture have been used on the show. The Barker family was burned alive, while Mercy's acolytes were tortured with boiling water. Both on the order or directly executed by Increase Mather.
Death by Hanging
While there are four known methods of causing death by hanging, only one was used in the American Colonies: the short drop. This meant that the victim would die of strangulation. Much later, the world would adopt the long drop method, which would “humanely” snap the victim's neck before the pain of strangulation was felt at all. When a criminal was hung at the gallows in the town square, the hanging was hardly about the criminal. It was about everybody else who was there to watch. Public hangings were considered morality lessons for children and other vulnerable townspeople. There was thought to be no greater deterrent for criminal activity than the sight of a criminal’s death.
Peine forte et dure
'Peine forte et dure' (Law French for "hard and forceful punishment") was a method of torture formerly used in the common law legal system, in which a defendant who refused to plead ("stood mute") would be subjected to having heavier and heavier stones placed upon his or her chest until a plea was entered, or the defendant died. This execution method is closely related to the aforementioned pressing method of torture, being its direct continuation in case of continued refusal of the prisoner to confess.
- Modern scholarly estimates place the total number of executions for witchcraft in the 300-year period of European witch-hunts in the five digits, mostly at roughly between 40,000 and 50,000. The majority of those accused were from the lower economic classes in European society, although in rarer cases high ranking individuals were accused as well.
- Contemporary witch-hunts have been reported from Sub-Saharan Africa, India and Papua New Guinea. Official legislation against witchcraft is still found in Saudi Arabia and Cameroon.
- From at least the 1930s, the term "witch-hunt" has been used figuratively to describe activities by governments (and, occasionally, by business entities) to seek out and expose perceived enemies, often apparently as a means of directing public opinion by fostering a degree of moral panic.